Visar poster taggade paper:

Stängda butiker på landsbygden påverkar inte människors flyttmönster

Ekonomiskt stöd för landsbygdsbutiker har funnits sedan 1973. Ofta antyds att utan butiker kommer landsbygden att dö ut. Så är det emellertid inte, har forskarna Jan Amcoff, Peter Möller och Erik Westholm visat.
2009 kom en arbetsrapport med följande abstract:
I mer än 50 års tid har "butiksdöden" härjat på svensk landsbygd. Ofta antas att när lanthandeln stänger så påverkar det bygdens livskraft. Denna studie visar att varken in- eller utflyttningen påverkas av en butiksstängning. Resultatet antyder snarare att befolkningsutvecklingen orsakar butiksnedläggningen, men också att butiken fyller en viktig funktion som mötesplats
Den vetenskapliga artikeln publicerades 2011:
Amcoff, Jan, Peter Möller, and Erik Westholm. 2011. "The (Un)Importance of the Closure of Village Shops to Rural Migration Patterns." http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593969.2011.562678 21(2): 129–43.
Intressant är att många Lanthandlar som stängs öppnar igen - men oftast för att åter stängas:
Något trendbrott i utflyttning eller inflyttning kring butiksstängningen sker inte, trenden ökad utflyttning är etablerad många år före stängningen (och i genomsnitt är inflyttningen större under åren efter stängningen, än före).
Festligt nog kombineras den kvantitativa analysen med intervjuer (21 till antalet):
Those who had lived in the selected villages for a long time described long-term population decline as resulting from a disappearing local labour market. The basic cause of the decline was generally identified as the closure, decades ago, of a main industry or mill. The shop closure was mainly seen as a natural step in the village’s decline. For in-migrants, the shop closure either occurred before they moved to the area or was an expected occurrence, i.e. it had already been considered in their decision to move to the village; they usually commuted to work every day, providing them with access to shopping centres.

Skollunchens effekt på inkomstfördelningen

Petter Lundborg och Dan-Olof Rooth har en artikel i senaste Ekonomisk Debatt: "Skollunchens effekt på utbildning, hälsa och livsinkomst". Artikeln utnyttjar att tidpunkten för införandet av skollunchreformen (näringsrika skolluncher kostnadsfritt för alla elever i grundskolan) varierade mellan olika kommuner, och undersöker effekten på längd, inkomster och andra hälsoutfall. Det ökade näringsintaget hade tydlig effekt på längd och inkomster.
Mest intressant är kanske att skollunchreformen hade vad jag brukar kalla en kontrafaktisk jämlikhetseffekt, dvs reformen var universell men innebar störst förbättringar för låginkomsttagare (eftersom dessa utan reformen skulle ha det svårare att fixa näringsriktig mat på egen hand).

Bjørnskov och Voigt om konstitutioner, kriser och katastrofer

Nytt papper av Christian Bjørnskov och Stefan Voigt i Public Choice om hur regeringar hanterar möjligheten att deklarera undantagstillstånd (state of emergency). Ur abstract:
[...] the more advantages emergency constitutions confer to the executive, the higher the number of people killed as a consequence of a natural disaster, controlling for its severity. As this is an unexpected result, we discuss a number of potential explanations, the most plausible being that governments use natural disasters as a pretext to enhance their power. Furthermore, the easier it is to call a state of emergency, the larger the negative effects on basic human rights

Rättsstat främjar kvinnors entreprenörskap

Abstract till pappret "RULE OF LAW AND FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP" av Nava Ashraf, Alexia Delfino och Edward L. Glaeser:
Commerce requires trust, but trust is difficult when one group consistently fears expropriation by another. If men have a comparative advantage at violence and there is little rule-of-law, then unequal bargaining power can lead women to segregate into low-return industries and avoid entrepreneurship altogether. In this paper, we present a model of female entrepreneurship and rule of law that predicts that women will only start businesses when they have both formal legal protection and informal bargaining power. The model's predictions are supported both in cross-national data and with a new census of Zambian manufacturers. In Zambia, female entrepreneurs collaborate less, learn less from fellow entrepreneurs, earn less and segregate into industries with more women, but gender differences are ameliorated when women have access to adjudicating institutions, such as Lusaka's "Market Chiefs" who are empowered to adjudicate small commercial disputes. We experimentally induce variation in local institutional quality in an adapted trust game, and find that this also reduces the gender gap in trust and economic activity.

Intressant artikel:

Intressant artikel:
Generous to all or ‘insiders only’? The relationship between welfare state generosity and immigrant welfare rights
Ur abstract:
Two sharply contrasting accounts exist for the relationships between welfare generosity and immigrant social rights. The dualization hypothesis argues that due to fiscal pressures and welfare chauvinism, generous welfare states are more likely to exclude immigrants from access to welfare benefits. The generosity hypothesis argues that on the contrary, in generous welfare states, an immigrant will be granted greater access to benefits for material, institutional and cultural reasons. Using newly collected data from the Immigration Policies in Comparison (IMPIC) project that covers 18 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) states over 30 years (1980–2010) the two hypotheses are tested using pooled time series analyses.
Resultatet:
[...] generous welfare states are more likely to grant immigrants access to welfare benefits, and less generous welfare states are more likely to exclude immigrants from access.
Kommentar: 'Insiders' i rubriken syftar alltså inte på arbetsmarknaden. Som jag själv beskrivit tycks länder med generösa välfärdssystem också ofta ha konkurrensbegränsande institutioner på arbetsmarknaden.
Källa:
Römer, Friederike. 2017. "Generous to All or ‘Insiders Only’? The Relationship between Welfare State Generosity and Immigrant Welfare Rights." Journal of European Social Policy 27(2): 173–96. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0958928717696441 (April 30, 2019).